ARTIFICIAL LIGHT SETUPS
N35Lat. PHOTOPERIOD STUDY
by Joe Knuc
The resin exuded by the glandular trichome forms a sphere
that encases the
When the resin spheres are separated from the dried plant material by
attraction and placed on a microscope slide illuminated with a
100W incandescent bulb, they appear very dark when observed through a 300X
microscope. Since yellow, orange, red, and infrared are the component wavelengths
incandescent light, and since the absorption of light makes an object dark or
opaque to the frequency of the incoming wave, one can conclude that these
wavelengths are probably not directly involved in energizing the cannabinoid
However, the resin sphere is transparent to ultraviolet radiation.
The author found through trial and error that only one glandular
exhibits the photochemical process that will produce the amount of THC
associated with pain relief, appetite stimulation and anti-nausea; euphoria and
hallucinations are side-effects, however. This trichome is
triggered into growth by either of the two ways that the floral bract is turned
Of all the ways that optics are involved in the photochemical
production of THC, the most interesting has to be how the head cells and
cannabinoid molecules are tremendously magnified
by the resin sphere. These and other facts are curiously absent from the
literature. The footnotes update the literature to include electrostatic
separation of the resin sphere from the dried plant material and marijuana
"For all spheres, a ray drawn perpendicular to the sphere's surface will
intersect the center of the sphere, no matter what spot on the surface is
picked, and the magnifying power(a) of a glass sphere is greater the smaller its
size. A sphere of glass can also bring light that is heading to a focus
it to a point within it, with freedom from two aberrations, spherial aberration
and coma, but not from chromatic aberration. Chromatic aberration results
different wavelengths are focused on different planes and is the most difficult
of the aberrations to correct. The human eye lens also exhibits chromatic
aberration, but a yellow pigment(b) called the macula lutea in the fovea, an
at the rear of the eyeball, corrects this problem by the way it absorbs blue
(a)"The formula to calculate the magnifying power
of a sphere is
is the magnifying power and
is the diameter of the sphere expressed in
(b)Interestingly, the resin exuded by drug-type
flowering female marijuana
plants has a yellow tint. Could this pigment work to correct chromatic
aberration in the resin sphere like the macula lutea does in the fovea for the
Quoting from the Mahlberg and Kim study of hemp: "THC accumulated in
abundance in the secretory cavity where it was associated with the following:
walls, surface feature of secretory vesicles, fibrillar material released
from disc cell wall, and cuticle. It was not associated with the
the secretory vesicles."
The resin spheres contain the THC. It is
not contained in the leaf or floral bract. After the resin spheres are
dissolved in solvent or dislodged by electrostatic attraction, and a
microscopic examination of the leaf or floral bract has revealed that only the
glandular trichomes' stalks remain, no effect will be felt after smoking the
dried plant material from which the resin spheres have been removed.
The electrostatic collection of the resin spheres from dried marijuana
plants with plenty of ripe seeds has been for hundreds of years the method
indigenous people of North Africa and Lebanon have used to make hashish.
Obtain a round metal can with a smooth lid.
Obtain 2 ounces of dried
with plenty of ripe seeds.
Obtain a 10-hole-to-the-inch wire kitchen strainer and rub the marijuana through it into the can to remove the seeds and stems.
Close the can with the lid and vigorously shake the closed can three
four times. This gives the resin spheres an excess negative charge.
can sit for a moment and then remove the lid. Opposites attract. The
negative-charged resin spheres have been attracted to the metal surface of the
can and lid which has a positive charge. Take a matchbook cover or credit
card and draw the edge across the surface of the lid. Note the collected
powder. Observed under 300X magnification, the collected powder from this
"shake" is composed of resin spheres with an occasional non-glandular
trichome. As the marijuana is shaken again and again, and more of the
resin spheres are
removed from the plant material, the collected powder gradually becomes
green-colored as the number of non-glandular trichomes increases in the
collected powder. The greener the powder, the less the effect.
"Cannabinoids represent a dimer consisting of a terpene and a phenol
component. Cannabigerol (CBG) is the first component of the
undergoes chemical change to form either cannabichromene (CBC), or cannabidiol
(CBD). Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is derived from CBD."
"Pate (1983) indicated that in areas of high ultraviolet radiation exposure,
the UVB (280-320 nm) absorption properties of THC may have conferred an
evolutionary advantage to Cannabis capable of greater production of this
compound from biogenetic precursor CBD. The extent to which this
also influenced by environmental UVB has also been experimentally determined by
Lydon et al. (1987)."
The writer's own experience allow for a more
conclusion: If the UVB photon is missing from the light stream(a), or the
intensity as expressed in microwatts/cm2 falls below a certain level(b), the
photochemical process will not be completely energized with only UVA photons
which are more penetrating but less energetic, and the harvested resin spheres
will have mostly precursor compounds and not fully realized THC(c).
(a)Examples of an environment where the UVB
photon would be missing from the light stream include all indoor cultivation
illuminated by HID bulbs and in glass or corrugated fiberglass
(b)"The maximum UVB irradiance near the equator
(solar elevation angle less than 25 deg.) under clear, sunny skies is about 250 microwatts/cm2. It was observed that the daily solar UVB in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
(N24.4Lat.) decreased from September to December by about 40% (Hannan et al.
1984). The further a person is from the tropics, the less UVB radiation
there is: the average annual exposure of a person living in Hawaii is
approximately four times that of someone living in northern Europe."
Below are some UVB readings taken
in Hoyleton, Illinois, on a clear sunny day in June by David Krughoff as
reported in Reptile Lighting 2000.
7am: 12 microwatts/cm2
8am: 74 microwatts/cm2
9am: 142 microwatts/cm2
10am: 192 microwatts/cm2
11am: 233 microwatts/cm2
12pm: 256 microwatts/cm2
1pm: 269 microwatts/cm2
2pm: 262 microwatts/cm2
3pm: 239 microwatts/cm2
4pm: 187 microwatts/cm2
5pm: 131 microwatts/cm2
6pm: 61 microwatts/cm2
(c)Cannabinoid pathway: Anywhere in this pathway
UVB does a better job than UVA in energizing a photochemical reaction that will
produce more fully realized THC because "all cannabinolic compounds show an
absorption maximum between 270 and 280 nm in the ultraviolet region."
Capitate-stalked glandular trichome. The Indica gene pool is the mother of this trichome. It does not naturally exist in the Sativa Hemp gene pool
#1: The ovum has been fertilized and there is a seed developing:
In the areas of the Northern Hemisphere where indigenous people have grown
sativa marijuana for hundreds of years, pollination is used to
trigger the growth of the capitate-stalked glandular trichome on the floral
bract and concomitant leaves of the flowering females before the autumnal
equinox(a) so the majority of seeds will be ripe(b) before November. This is an important detail because it takes five to six weeks for the majority of seeds to ripen. And since marijuana with a majority of ripe seeds is more psychoactive than marijuana with a majority of unripe seeds one can conclude that the phytochemical process will not create fully realized THC in unfiltered sunlight until five to six weeks have passed after the appearance of the capitate-stalked glandular trichome. This is true whether the capitate-stalked glandular was triggered into growth by pollination or the photoperiod. Any harvest before that amount of time has passed will not be as great!
(7) #2: The floral bracts have become parthenocarpic.
Parthenocarpic fruits develop without pollination and have no seeds.
Except for transmutation and turning lead into gold, there has been more
nonsense written about seedless marijuana than on any other subject. First of all, seedless is a term of art in horticulture and is used to identify a fruit that is parthenocarpic such as seedless grapes for example. But most of the seedless marijuana grown is just that: neither parthenocarpic nor pollinated. One can say that those growers are harvesting apple blossoms instead of apples. In
marijuana parthenocarpy, the floral bract (the fruit) enlarges in size as
though there was a seed growing inside, and the capitate-stalked glandular
trichomes are triggered into growth on the floral bract and concomitant
"Most popular supermarket tomatoes are parthenocarpic which was induced
artificially by the application of dilute hormone sprays (such as auxins) to
the flowers." In a trial, marijuana parthenocarpy was not induced by the
application of the spray used on tomatoes. Only the photoperiod(c) will
parthenocarpy in flowering female marijuana plants. Marijuana
occurring before the autumnal equinox is considered by the author to be
"long-day" and marijuana parthenocarpy occurring after the autumnal equinox to
The longest photoperiod
that will trigger
parthenocarpy in unfertilized
Indica female marijuana plants is 13:00 hours, give or take 15 minutes.
This effect can be obtained in the month of August at
N35Lat, and because the capitate-stalked glandular trichomes received plenty
during this month at this latitude, the harvested resin spheres had fully
euphoria and hallucinations, major appetite boost and pain relief, deep
dreamless sleep. These plants seldom grow taller than four feet but
makes up for the reduced harvest.
The gene pool is heterozygous if a flowering
plant is not parthenocarpic by the end of the first week in September in the
Northern Hemisphere. If this is the case, pollination is used
instead of parthenocarpy to trigger the growth of the capitate-stalked
glandular trichome before the autumnal equinox to obtain as much fully realized
THC as possible in the harvested resin spheres by the time the majority of the
seeds are ripe.
The longest photoperiod that will trigger
parthenocarpy in unfertilized
flowering heterozygous female marijuana plants is 11:00 hours, give or take 15
This effect can be obtained in the month of November at N35Lat. Because
of the low intensity of UVB radiation at this latitude at sea level during
November, the harvested resin spheres evidenced only slightly more THC than
precursor compounds. Rating: mild to medium euphoria, appetite boost and
relief, good snooze.
Thai marijuana falls into this 11:00
hour category, and its parthenocarpy is characterized by an
inflorescence in which many floral bracts are attached to an elongated
meristem. It is these elongated meristems that are harvested to
become a THAI STICK. On the other side of the world, Mexican
marijuana grown around the same latitudes (Michoacan, Guerrero, Oaxaca)
also falls into this short-day parthenocarpic category and the
unfertilized marijuana will become "sensimilla" in the 11:00 hour
photoperiod which begins in mid-December in that region. The
winter sunshine in those latitudes has more UVB intensity than the
winter sunshine at N35Lat but still not as much as before the equinox.
All unfertilized flowering female marijuana
plants will become parthenocarpic
in a 9:00 hour photoperiod (15:00 hour dark period):
This can be obtained in the month of December
at N35Lat. At this latitude in this
month there is not even enough UVB in sunlight for precursor vitamin D3 to
develop in human skin. The photochemical process will not produce fully
realized THC when
UVB falls below a certain level of intensity expressed in microwatts/cm2.
(a)In the Northern Hemisphere above the Tropic of
Cancer, the key to all
marijuana potency is this: The more days of sunlight the
capitate-stalked glandular trichomes' resin spheres accumulate before the
autumnal equinox the more fully realized THC.
(b)It is recognized in the indigenous world that
drug-type marijuana with a majority of ripe seeds will produce more euphoria,
hallucinations, appetite stimulation, pain relief, and sleep aid than with a
majority of unripe seeds.
(c)The photoperiodic response is controlled
by phytochrome. "Phytochrome is a blue pigment in the leaves and seeds of
plants and is found in 2 forms. One form is a blue form(Pfr), which
red light, and the other is a blue-green form(Pr) that absorbs far-red
Solar energy has 10X more red (660nm) than far-red (730nm) light causing the
accumulation of Pfr." The first and last hour of a day's sunlight is
red light because of the scattering effect on blue light. "So at the
the dark period much of the phytochrome is in the Pfr form. However, Pfr
unstable and returns to phytochrome Pr in the dark." The red light in
returns the Pr to the Pfr form. "Phytochrome Pfr is the active form and
controls flowering and germination. It inhibits flowering of short-day
(the long night period is required for the conversion of Pfr to Pr) and
promotes flowering of long day plants."
(d)In the India nursery where legal hash plants are started, and where
capitate-stalked glandular trichome is
triggered into growth by parthenocarpy rather than by fertilized ovum, great
care is taken to make sure that all male marijuana plants are destroyed as soon
as they reveal their sex. This is because unfertilized Indica flowering
females can have both stigma and a pollen filled anther protruding from the floral bract.
the Indica gene pool, female-produced pollen carries an allele for long-day
parthenocarpy, and seeds resulting from this female-produced pollen will
produce another generation of female plants that will also exhibit long-day
parthenocarpy during flowering. But if pollen from male plants is
into this gene pool, the resulting seeds will produce a generation of females
that will exhibit short-day parthenocarpy instead. The allele for long-day
parthenocarpy in the female-produced pollen is carried into the gene pool by
self-pollination and cross-pollination, and perhaps homozygous is used too
loosely here to describe the genetic result.
(8) It appears that the
acts as an UVB receptor and magnifying lens. The latter apparently lets it
gather in a lot more photons than would otherwise be possible; because a lens
also acts as a prism, the resin sphere may prevent some wavelengths from being
focused where the photochemical processes are taking place because they could
interfere with the efficiency of the photochemical process that makes THC.
Joe Knuc is a pseudonym. If the paragraph or sentence in Marijuana Optics has quotes around it, but no attribution, then it is generally accepted science described by somebody with a degree--but who probably wouldn't want their name coming up in a marijuana google. So we don't identify these folks out of respect for their privacy. As for the rest, it was all written by Joe Knuc.
SAVE AND PRINT MARIJUANA OPTICS
(C)2002 jknuc rev. may 2015